Additional Branch of Brachial Artery Terminating in Superficial Palmar Arch
Superficial palmar arch is an arterial arcade in the palm of the hand formed by superficial branch of ulnar artery and can be completed on lateral side by superficial palmar branch of radial artery or any one of these arteries viz. princeps pollicis artery, radialis indicis artery or the median artery. The arch develops as a terminal plexus of axis artery of upper limb which is later joined by median, ulnar and radial arteries as these arteries develop. The present study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India on 60 formalin fixed adult human cadaver hands. Out of 60 (30 on right and 30 on left side) in one specimen a unique variation was encountered in the arteries taking part in the formation of superficial palmar arch on the right side. Superficial palmar arch formation was normal and in addition an additional branch arose from the medial side of the brachial artery just below the middle of the arm. It descended on the medial side of cubital fossa, superficial to common flexors of forearm and pierced the antebrachial fascia proximal to wrist. It entered the palm by crossing anterior to flexor retinaculum and terminated in superficial palmar arch.The level of termination of brachial artery was normal in cubital fossa and origin of princeps pollicis artery and radialis indicis artery from radial artery were also normal in the hand. The superficial palmar arch on the left side is classical completed on the lateral side by superficial branch of radial artery. The study on variations of superficial palmar arch is helpful in crushing injuries of hand, arterial grafting and injury to blood vessels of the upper limb.Relavant knowledge of anatomy regarding the variations of the superficial palmar arch is significant for the purposes of microvascular repairs and re-implantations during hand
Keywords - Additional branch of brachial artery, Radial artery, Superficial palmar arch, Ulnar artery.