Paper Title
Effects of Quadratic Drag and Throughflow on the onset of Darcy-B—źNARD Convection in a Porous Layer using a Thermal Nonequilibrium Model

Abstract
The effects of LTNE and throughflow on the criterion for the onset of convection in a horizontal porous layer are investigated when the solid and fluid phases are not in local thermal equilibrium. A two field model that represents the fluid and solid phase temperature fields separately is used for energy equation. The shooting method combined with Runge-Kuatta method is used to obtain the eigenvalue equation, which is then solved numerically. It is noted that throughflow has a stabilizing effect on the stability of the system have the effect of delaying the onset of convection and reducing the size of convection cells. In addition, the influence of parameters representing the thermal non-equilibrium effects on convective instability is discussed in detail. Key words - Throughflow, Porous Layer, Thermal Non-Equilibrium Model, Shooting Method.