Evaluation of Genotoxicity by Micronucleus Assay in the Buccal Mucosa of Oral Cancer Patients
Worldwide, oral cancer ranks eighth position in cancer incidence. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes ~96% of all oral malignancies. The etiology of oral cancer is multifactorial. The established factors that cause oral cancer are mostly smoking, chewing betel quid/tobacco and alcohol intake separately or synergistically. The commercially available smokeless forms such as khaini or pan (betel quid), and gutkha consisting of a mixture of lime, areca nut, slaked lime, catechu and other condiments are highly associated with oral cancer. Micronuclei are characterized by the presence of both a main nucleus and one or more smaller nuclear structure, round/oval in shape, diameter ranges between 1/3 and 1/16 of the main nucleus. There are possibilities of multiple micronuclei depending upon the extent of DNA damage. The study was done in National Institute of medical sciences and research, Jaipur (Raj). The sample size consisted of 40 people who were divided into two groups. The first group was considered the control group and did not have the history of tobacco consumption. The second group consisted of people who were diagnosed with oral carcinoma. We observed a significant increase in MN frequency among patients of oral carcinoma compared to control group. This study clearly indicates that the micronucleus assay can be used as a effective tool for evaluation of genotoxicity.
Keywords - Oral Cancer, Micronuclei, DNA Damage, Tobacco