Smart Materials-Types SS and their Application: A Review
In the manufacturing world now we need some ‘Intelligent’ or Smart materials which can change their property according to our requirement. Smart materials are one of the unique material and the general characteristics of all these materials are common that is their behaviour or significant property can be altered, reversed or controlled under the influence of external impetus. Their smartness can be characterized by its self-adaptability, self-sensing and self-healing in response to any external stimuli. In simple words ‘Smart Materials’ may be defined as the material which react to its environment on its own ,the reaction may exhibit itself as a change in volume, color, viscosity, odour and this may occur in response to a change in temperature, stress, electric current, pH or magnetic field. Smart materials have a stupendous effect on variety of fields since its discovery to its present day and also its impact is visible in our day to day life through its application in smart infrastructure to smart sensors as well as smart gadgets and vehicles. In this paper we have focused on the introduction to smart materials, their current and potential application in different fields, brief discussion about their type such as actuators, shape memory alloy, piezoelectric material and so on.
Keywords: Smart materials, Actuators, sensors, smart system.