Improvement in Power Flow Conditions using Sensitivity Analysis for Congestion Management

As the power systems are becoming more complex it requires careful design of the new devices and systems for the operation of controlling the power flow in transmission system. The researched systems should be flexible enough to adapt to any momentary system conditions. Power-flow analysis or load flow analysis is a numerical analysis of the flow of electric power in an interconnected system. The goal of this analysis is to obtain complete information of angle and magnitude of voltage for each bus in a power system for specified load, generator real power and voltage conditions. Once the required information is achieved, real and reactive power flow on each branch as well as generator reactive power output can be analytically determined. Due to the nonlinear nature of this problem, numerical methods are employed to obtain a solution within an acceptable tolerance. In this paper, Gauss-Seidel, Jacobian Series Code, Newton-Raphson, Tanikchalam Sensitivity Analysis and Fast-Decoupled methods are compared with respect to their performances, convergence rates and outputs for IEEE 14 bus system. Further, fact controllers i.e., static VAR compensator for improvement in the voltage profile is also designed and implemented and a comparison is carried out for the voltage profiles with or without the absence of fact controllers. Keywords - Sensitivity Analysis, Newton Raphson, Power Flow, Real Power