Bioaccumulation of Trace Metals in Vegetables from Urban River Floodplain and an Appraisal of Health Risk
Rapid urbanization has led to intensive cultivation especially vegetable production along urban river floodplain in developing countries which are contaminated due to various anthropogenic and developmental activities. Vegetable grown on contaminated soil may pose risks to human health as they have high ability to accumulate metals. This study was carried out along Yamuna river floodplain, Delhi to assess the bioaccumulation of metals and health risk due to consumption of trace metal contaminated vegetables. Vegetables samples (32) including Bottle gourd, Bitter gourd, Smooth gourd and Pumpkin were collected in May 2018 and processed for analysis of trace metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The Smooth gourd and Bottle gourd have shown higher concentration of trace metals than other vegetables. The bioaccumulation pattern for trace metals in studied vegetables were Zn>Ni>Pb>Cr>Mn>Fe. Appraisal of health risk indicate that consumption of contaminated vegetable poses carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic (due to Pb only) health impacts to exposed population. The non-carcinogenic risk due to Pb follows as Smooth gourd>Bitter gourd>Bottle gourd>Pumpkin while total cancer risk follows order of Bottle gourd>Smooth gourd>Pumpkin>Bitter gourd. This study concluded that vegetables grown along river floodplain are contaminated due to trace metals and posing potential health risk to the exposed population.
Keywords - Bioaccumulation, Floodplain, Health Risk, Trace Metal