Quantum Cryptography: Future of our Privacy
The advancement of Quantum computing has surfaced new challenges in the field of cryptography . The cryptographic algorithms used in conventional computing are susceptible to a serious challenge in the quantum computing era. Conventional Cryptography which is currently in use relies on the hardness of mathematical concepts, precisely on how difficult it is to prime factorise a given large number which forms the underlying principle of encryption in modern day cryptographic algorithms like RSA. Modern Cryptography , also known as Elliptical curve cryptography , is used majorly in safeguarding financial transactions. With the ever growing dependency of the world to internet cyber security remains as important as it was ever before. With the developments in quantum computing , the reverse computation will be possible in a matter of minutes which ultimately will make the whole process of current encryption vague. Principle of quantum mechanics is looked upon as a solution to it giving birth to Quantum Cryptography. In this research work we have explained about quantum cryptography and why it was required in the first place to establish network security. We talked about
the underlying theories of quantum mechanics in quantum cryptography and then went on to discuss Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), applications of QKD protocols and implementation of the same in the real world. We extended our work by studying post-quantum cryptography and the challenges that will be there due to the evolution in these fronts, and concluded our work with the future scopes pertaining this field of research.