Mushroom Cultivation - Environmental Impact and Sustainability
Mushroom’s value as nutrition is well known to world but its great benefit to the environmental conditions? Mushrooms biosynthesize their own food from agricultural crop residues with readily available solar energy, otherwise, their byproducts and wastes of which would cause health hazards. The spent compost/substrate could be used to grow other species of mushrooms, as fodder for livestock, feed for fish, as a soil conditioner and fertilizer, and in environmental bioremediation ultimately zero waste management.
The word mushroom means different things to different people in different countries. “Mushroom is a distinctive fruiting body of a macrofungus, non Chlorophyllous belongs to the major class Basisiomycetes which produce basidiospores that can be either epigeous or hypogeous.The edible visible part that is fruit body produced by fungus is called basidocarp, which can be seen with the naked eye and picked by hand.This definition is not perfect, but it has been accepted as a workable term to estimate the number of mushrooms on Earth (approximately 16,000 species according to the rules of International Code of Nomenclature). In fact, they may be functionally more closely related to animal cells than plants. However, they are sufficiently distinct both from plants and animals and belong to a separate group in the Fungi Kingdom. They rise up from lignocellulosic wastes: yet, they become bountiful and nourishing.The most cultivated mushrooms are saprophytes and are heterotrophic .Even though their cells have walls, they are devoid of chlorophyll and cannot perform photosynthesis. They are also devoid of vascular xylem and phloem. Furthermore, their cell walls contain chitin, which also occurs in the exoskeleton of insects and other arthropods. They absorb oxygen and release Carbondioxide. Mushrooms can be used as food, tonics, medicines, cosmeceuticals, and as natural biocontrol agents in plant protection with insecticidal, fungicidal, bactericidal, herbicidal, nematocidal, and antiphytoviral activities. Environment means a total of all the living and non- living elements and their interaction between microbes or microbes and higher organisms including human beings and their effects that influence the superior animal human being.Living biotic elements includes Plants, animals and the microbes and abiotic elements include like water,land,air, sunlight and rocks. The environment offers resources for production. It includes both renewable and non renewable resources. The environment sustains life by providing genetic and biodiversity. Production and consumption related activities generate waste. This occurs in the form of waste called “ Garbage”. The environment helps getting out of waste by involving microbes like Bacteria, fungus by interacting among themselves or interacting microbes with plants or microbes with higher animals including abiotic elements.
Mushrooms have a remarkable ability to absorb carbon amongst their many other industrial, nutritional and pharmaceutical benefits. This fungus can help save the planet, including cleaning the polluted soil, making insecticides.
Keywords - Mushroom; Environment; Fungus; Mycelium; Garbage