Paper Title
Role of Perceived Parental Authority and Self Esteem on The Grit of College Students

"A constellation of attitudes toward the child that are communicated to the child and generate an emotional climate in which parents' behaviors are articulated," Darling and Steinberg (1993) defined parenting style. Baumrind (1966) identified three main types of parenting techniques - Authoritarian, permissive, and Authoritative Parenting. Grit is defined as the ability to withstand adversity while maintaining passion for long term goals (Cross, 2014; Eskreis-Winkler, Shulman, Beal, & Duckworth, 2014; Wolters & Hussain, 2014). According to Rosenberg (1965a), self-esteem is one's positive or negative attitude toward oneself and one's evaluation of one's own thoughts and feelings overall in relation to oneself. Authoritative parenting has not been examined in relation to grit specifically, but has been associated with similar characteristics such as intrinsic motivation (Turner et al., 2009), self-esteem (Steinberg et al., 1989), and resiliency (Schofield et al., 2014). Grit has been associated with higher levels of self-control, engagement, and academic productivity as well as lower attrition rates in higher education (Cross, 2014; Hodge et al., 2018; Muenks, Wigfield, Yang, & O’Neal, 2017). Given the impact that parenting may have on resilience (Schofield, Conger, & Neppl, 2014), self-esteem (Steinberg et al., 1989), intrinsic motivation and academic performance in college (Hickman et al., 2000; Turner et al., 2009), it may be considered in conjunction with grit. The aim of this study is to study to what extent is the Perceived Parental Authority and Self Esteem of students related to and to what extent it predicts the Grit of college students. Keywords - Parenting Styles, Perceived Parental Authority, Grit, Authoritative Parenting, Authoritarian Parenting, Permissive Parenting, College Students, Self Esteem